Mooney DJ, Breuer C, McNamara K, Vacanti JP, Langer R. Fabricating tubular devices from polymers of lactic and glycolic Acid for tissue engineering. Tissue Eng. 1995;1 (2) :107-18.Abstract
Polymers of lactic and glycolic acid are attractive candidates to fabricate devides to transplant cells and engineer new tissues. These polymers are biocompatible, and exhibit a wide range of erosion times and mechanical properties. This manuscript describes the fabrication and characterization, in vitro and in vivo, of hollow, tubular devices from porous films of various polymers of this family. Porous films of these polymers were formed using a particulate leaching technique, and sealed around Teflon cylinders to form hollow tubular devices. The erosion rate of devices was controlled by the specific polymer utilized for fabrication, and ranged from months to years. Devices fabricated from a 50/50 copolymer of D,L-lactic acid and glycolic acid were completely eroded by 2 months, while devices fabricated from a homopolymer of L-lactic acid showed little mass loss after 1 year. Erosion times for devices fabricated from the other polymers [poly-(D,L-lactic acid) and a 85/15 copolymer] were between these two extremes. Devices were capable of resisting significant compressional forces (150 raN) in vitro, and the compression resistance was controlled by the polymer utilized to fabricate the devices. The ability of the devices to maintain their structure after implantation into the mesentery or omentum of laboratory rats was also dependent of the specific polymer utilized to fabricate the device. These results indicate that it is possible to fabricate tubular devices for tissue engineering applications that exhibit a wide range of erosion rates and mechanical properties.
Mooney DJ, Organ G, Vacanti JP, Langer R. Design and fabrication of biodegradable polymer devices to engineer tubular tissues. Cell Transplant. 1994;3 (2) :203-10.Abstract
Engineering new tissues by transplanting cells on polymeric delivery devices is one approach to alleviate the vast shortage of donor tissue. However, it will be necessary to fabricate cell delivery devices that deliver cells to a given location and promote the formation of specific tissue structures from the transplanted cells and the host tissue. This report describes the design and fabrication of a polymeric device for guiding the development of tubular vascularized tissues, which may be useful for engineering a variety of tissues including intestine, blood vessels, tracheas, and ureters. Porous films of poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) have been formed and fabricated into tubes capable of resisting compressional forces in vitro and in vivo. These devices promote the ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue following implantation into recipient animals, resulting in a vascularized, tubular tissue. To investigate the utility of these devices as cell delivery devices, enterocytes (intestinal epithelial cells) were seeded onto the devices in vitro. Enterocytes were found to attach to these devices and form an organized epithelial cell layer. These results suggest that these devices may be an appropriate delivery vehicle for transplanting cells and engineering new tubular tissues.
Mooney DJ, Hansen LK, Langer R, Vacanti JP, Ingber DE. Extracellular matrix controls tubulin monomer levels in hepatocytes by regulating protein turnover. Mol Biol Cell. 1994;5 (12) :1281-8.Abstract
Cells have evolved an autoregulatory mechanism to dampen variations in the concentration of tubulin monomer that is available to polymerize into microtubules (MTs), a process that is known as tubulin autoregulation. However, thermodynamic analysis of MT polymerization predicts that the concentration of free tubulin monomer must vary if MTs are to remain stable under different mechanical loads that result from changes in cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). To determine how these seemingly contradictory regulatory mechanisms coexist in cells, we measured changes in the masses of tubulin monomer and polymer that resulted from altering cell-ECM contacts. Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in chemically defined medium on bacteriological petri dishes that were precoated with different densities of laminin (LM). Increasing the LM density from low to high (1-1000 ng/cm2), promoted cell spreading (average projected cell area increased from 1200 to 6000 microns2) and resulted in formation of a greatly extended MT network. Nevertheless, the steady-state mass of tubulin polymer was similar at 48 h, regardless of cell shape or ECM density. In contrast, round hepatocytes on low LM contained a threefold higher mass of tubulin monomer when compared with spread cells on high LM. Furthermore, similar results were obtained whether LM, fibronectin, or type I collagen were used for cell attachment. Tubulin autoregulation appeared to function normally in these cells because tubulin mRNA levels and protein synthetic rates were greatly depressed in round cells that contained the highest level of free tubulin monomer. However, the rate of tubulin protein degradation slowed, causing the tubulin half-life to increase from approximately 24 to 55 h as the LM density was lowered from high to low and cell rounding was promoted. These results indicate that the set-point for the tubulin monomer mass in hepatocytes can be regulated by altering the density of ECM contacts and changing cell shape. This finding is consistent with a mechanism of MT regulation in which the ECM stabilizes MTs by both accepting transfer of mechanical loads and altering tubulin degradation in cells that continue to autoregulate tubulin synthesis.
Hansen LK, Mooney DJ, Vacanti JP, Ingber DE. Integrin binding and cell spreading on extracellular matrix act at different points in the cell cycle to promote hepatocyte growth. Mol Biol Cell. 1994;5 (9) :967-75.Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine the importance of integrin binding and cell shape changes in the control of cell-cycle progression by extracellular matrix (ECM). Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured on ECM-coated dishes in serum-free medium with saturating amounts of growth factors (epidermal growth factor and insulin). Integrin binding and cell spreading were promoted in parallel by plating cells on dishes coated with fibronectin (FN). Integrin binding was separated from cell shape changes by culturing cells on dishes coated with a synthetic arg-gly-asp (RGD)-peptide that acts as an integrin ligand but does not support hepatocyte extension. Expression of early (junB) and late (ras) growth response genes and DNA synthesis were measured to determine whether these substrata induce G0-synchronized hepatocytes to reenter the growth cycle. Cells plated on FN exhibited transient increases in junB and ras gene expression (within 2 and 8 h after plating, respectively) and synchronous entry into S phase. Induction of junB and ras was observed over a similar time course in cells on RGD-coated dishes, however, these round cells did not enter S phase. The possibility that round cells on RGD were blocked in mid to late G1 was confirmed by the finding that when trypsinized and replated onto FN-coated dishes after 30 h of culture, they required a similar time (12-15 h) to reenter S phase as cells that had been spread and allowed to progress through G1 on FN. We have previously shown that hepatocytes remain viable and maintain high levels of liver-specific functions when cultured on these RGD-coated dishes. Thus, these results suggest that ECM acts at two different points in the cell cycle to regulate hepatocyte growth: first, by activating the G0/G1 transition via integrin binding and second, by promoting the G1/S phase transition and switching off the default differentiation program through mechanisms related to cell spreading.
Mooney DJ, Kaufmann PM, Sano K, McNamara KM, Vacanti JP, Langer R. Transplantation of hepatocytes using porous, biodegradable sponges. Transplant Proc. 1994;26 (6) :3425-6.
Mooney DJ. Government policies on a collision course. Health cost containment and the antitrust laws. Med Group Manage J. 1993;40 (5) :46-8, 50, 52.Abstract
The Sherman Act, passed in 1890, was initially enacted to break up the huge "trusts" of that era, writes Donald Mooney, but it has been used more frequently as a weapon in the government's war to slow mounting health care costs. In this era of mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures, groups need to be readily aware of the laws regarding antitrust.
Organ GM, Mooney DJ, Hansen LK, Schloo B, Vacanti JP. Enterocyte transplantation using cell-polymer devices to create intestinal epithelial-lined tubes. Transplant Proc. 1993;25 (1 Pt 2) :998-1001.
Power WJ, Hope-Ross M, Mooney DJ. Preoperative pupil fatigue. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1992;18 (3) :306-9.Abstract
Pupils are frequently dilated on the day before cataract surgery and for retinal detachment surgery so the fundus can be examined. This may, however, interfere with pupil mydriasis on the day of surgery. This study looked at the effect of pupil dilation with tropicamide 1% and with cyclopentolate 1% on pupil mydriasis 24 hours later, using phenylephrine 10% and cyclopentolate 1%, in 40 cataract patients. The pupils dilated with cyclopentolate one day previously demonstrated a mean reduction in subsequent mydriasis of 0.73 mm compared with pupils that had been dilated with tropicamide (P less than .0001). The magnitude of this difference was not related to the patient age (P = .12) or to iris color (P = .21). If it is necessary to dilate pupils on the day before surgery, tropicamide 1% rather than cyclopentolate 1% should be used, as it is less likely to interfere with the pupil mydriasis produced with cyclopentolate 1% and phenylephrine 10% on the day of surgery.
Organ GM, Mooney DJ, Hansen LK, Schloo B, Vacanti JP. Transplantation of enterocytes utilizing polymer-cell constructs to produce a neointestine. Transplant Proc. 1992;24 (6) :3009-11.
Power WJ, Travers SP, Mooney DJ. Welding arc maculopathy and fluphenazine. Br J Ophthalmol. 1991;75 (7) :433-5.Abstract
A 45-year-old male patient presented with a bilateral maculopathy following unprotected exposure of less than two minutes' duration to a manual metal arc welding unit. He had been receiving the drug fluphenazine for the previous 10 years for treatment of depression. We believe that the drug fluphenazine, which had accumulated in his retinal pigment epithelium, may have rendered him particularly susceptible to retinal photic damage.
Doherty PE, Mooney DJ. Deciphering bloody imprints through chemical enhancement. J Forensic Sci. 1990;35 (2) :457-65.Abstract
Obliterated bloody impressions are occasionally submitted to the crime laboratory, and potentially to the document examiner, for decipherment. Nondestructive methods often lead to inconclusive results in these circumstances. With this point in mind, the researchers explored a series of chemical reagents with the intent to enhance bloody imprints to a legible degree. The reagents selected for this comparison include rhodamine dye, luminol, and Coomassie Blue stain.
Power WJ, Coleman K, Curtin DM, Mooney DJ. The pattern ERG in Best's disease. Doc Ophthalmol. 1990;76 (3) :279-84.Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess inner retinal function in patients with Best's disease using the pattern ERG (PERG). Nine patients with Best's disease, who had good visual acuity, were studied. Five of the nine had abnormal PERGs. All five had some reduction in central visual acuity. We believe that the abnormal PERGs in these patients represents photoreceptor cell loss which is occurring at an early stage in Best's disease.
Kinsella FP, Mooney DJ. Anaphylaxis following oral fluorescein angiography. Am J Ophthalmol. 1988;106 (6) :745-6.
Kinsella FP, Mooney DJ. Angioid streaks in beta thalassaemia minor. Br J Ophthalmol. 1988;72 (4) :303-4.Abstract
We report what we believe to be the first recorded case of angioid streaks in a patient with beta thalassaemia minor. The occurrence of angioid streaks in a patient with a relatively normal iron balance and only very mild haemolysis may be explained by the combination of pregnancy with associated multiple transfusions in a myopic patient where an inherent defect in Bruch's membrane may exist.
O'Connor MA, Mooney DJ. The additional pressure-lowering effect in patients with glaucoma of pilocarpine 2 per cent, adrenaline 1 per cent, or guanethidine 3 per cent with adrenaline 0.5 per cent and timolol 0.25 per cent: a double-blind cross-over study. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1983;103 ( Pt 6) :588-92.Abstract
A group of twelve comparable patients with primary open angle glaucoma were treated with Timolol 0.25 per cent drops to which was added pilocarpine 2 per cent, adrenaline 1 per cent or guanethidine 3 per cent plus adrenaline 0.5 per cent in a cross-over study. The initial intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction due to timolol was statistically significant. The mean additional IOP lowering due to pilocarpine 2 per cent was 1.37 mm Hg, that due to adrenaline 1 per cent was 1.79 mm Hg and that due to guanethidine 3 per cent plus adrenaline 0.5 per cent was 5.29 mm Hg.
Moloney JB, Mooney DJ, O'Connor MA. Retinal function in Stargardt's disease and fundus flavimaculatus. Am J Ophthalmol. 1983;96 (1) :57-65.Abstract
Ten patients with Stargardt's disease and 14 with fundus flavimaculatus underwent thorough ophthalmic examinations, retinal photography, and, when possible, fluorescein angiography. Retinal function was also assessed by static and kinetic perimetry, the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test, electro-oculography, and electroretinography. Visual acuity and color discrimination were reduced in all patients (mean visual acuity, 20/120; mean error score, 365). On electroretinography all patients had some significant abnormality of cone function and 24 eyes had abnormal rod function (mean Vmax, 298.3). Electrooculographic findings were abnormal in 24 eyes and borderline in ten others. These abnormalities were similar in both groups but more severe in fundus flavimaculatus. Stargardt's disease and fundus flavimaculatus did not co-exist in any family studied and the mean duration of disease was similar in both, indicating that Stargardt's disease did not progress to fundus flavimaculatus. Both the age of onset and duration significantly affected the severity of fundus flavimaculatus but neither had a significant effect on Stargardt's disease.
Berkson G, Mooney DJ. Basal skin resistance of premature infants. Percept Mot Skills. 1971;33 (3) :1138.
Harden AF, Mooney DO, Mooney DJ. Congenital keratolenticular adhesion. Am J Ophthalmol. 1970;70 (6) :975-7.