Publications

2017
Qazi TH, Mooney DJ, Duda GN, Geissler S. Biomaterials that promote cell-cell interactions enhance the paracrine function of MSCs. Biomaterials. 2017;140 :103-114.Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that play crucial roles during tissue regeneration. Whether this paracrine function is influenced by the properties of biomaterials in general, and those used for cell delivery in particular, largely remains unexplored. Here, we investigated if three-dimensional culture in distinct microenvironments - nanoporous hydrogels (mean pore size ∼5 nm) and macroporous scaffolds (mean pore size ∼120 μm) - affects the secretion pattern of MSCs, and consequently leads to differential paracrine effects on target progenitor cells such as myoblasts. We report that compared to MSCs encapsulated in hydrogels, scaffold seeded MSCs show an enhanced secretion profile and exert beneficial paracrine effects on various myoblast functions including migration and proliferation. Additionally, we show that the heightened paracrine effects of scaffold seeded cells can in part be attributed to N-cadherin mediated cell-cell interactions during culture. In hydrogels, this physical interaction between cells is prevented by the encapsulating matrix. Functionally blocking N-cadherin negatively affected the secretion profile and paracrine effects of MSCs on myoblasts, with stronger effects observed for scaffold seeded compared to hydrogel encapsulated cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that the therapeutic potency of MSCs can be enhanced by biomaterials that promote cell-cell interactions.
Joly P, Schaus T, Sass A, Dienelt A, Cheung AS, Duda GN, Mooney DJ. Biophysical induction of cell release for minimally manipulative cell enrichment strategies. PLoS One. 2017;12 (6) :e0180568.Abstract
The use of autologous cells harvested and subsequently transplanted in an intraoperative environment constitutes a new approach to promote regeneration. Usually cells are isolated by selection methods such as fluorescence- or magnetic- activated cell sorting with residual binding of the antibodies or beads. Thus, cell-based therapies would benefit from the development of new devices for cell isolation that minimally manipulate the target cell population. In the clinic, 5 to 10 percent of fractures do not heal properly and CD31+ cells have been identified as promising candidates to support bone regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop and prototype a simple system to facilitate the enrichment of CD31+ cells from whole blood. After validating the specificity of a commercially available aptamer for CD31, we combined this aptamer with traditional magnetic bead strategies, which led to enrichment of CD31+ cells with a purity of 91±10%. Subsequently, the aptamer was attached to agarose beads (Ø = 100-165 um) that were incorporated into a column-based system to enable capture and subsequent release of the CD31+ enriched cells. Different parameters were investigated to allow a biophysical-based cell release from beads, and a simple mixing was found sufficient to release initially bound cells from the optimized column without the need for any chemicals that promote disassociation. The system led to a significant enrichment of CD31+ cells (initial population: 63±9%, released: 87±3%) with excellent cell viability (released: 97±1%). The composition of the released CD31+ fraction indicated an enrichment of the monocyte population. The angiogenic and osteogenic potential of the released cell population were confirmed in vitro. These results and the simplicity of this system highlight the potential of such approach to enable cell enrichment strategies in intraoperative settings.
Hu Y, Mao AS, Desai RM, Wang H, Weitz DA, Mooney DJ. Controlled self-assembly of alginate microgels by rapidly binding molecule pairs. Lab Chip. 2017;17 (14) :2481-2490.Abstract
Controlled self-assembly of cell-encapsulating microscale polymeric hydrogels (microgels) could be advantageous in a variety of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Here, a method of assembly by chemical modification of alginate polymer with binding pair molecules (BPM) was explored. Alginate was modified with several types of BPM, specifically biotin and streptavidin and click chemistry compounds, and fabricated into 25-30 μm microgels using a microfluidic platform. These microgels were demonstrated to self-assemble under physiological conditions. By combining complementary microgels at a high ratio, size-defined assemblages were created, and the effects of BPM type and assembly method on the number of microgels per assemblage and packing density were determined. Furthermore, a magnetic process was developed to separate assemblages from single microgels, and allow formation of multilayer spheroids. Finally, cells were singly encapsulated into alginate microgels and assembled using BPM-modified alginate, suggesting potential applications in regenerative medicine.
Cipitria A, Boettcher K, Schoenhals S, Garske DS, Schmidt-Bleek K, Ellinghaus A, Dienelt A, Peters A, Mehta M, Madl CM, et al. In-situ tissue regeneration through SDF-1α driven cell recruitment and stiffness-mediated bone regeneration in a critical-sized segmental femoral defect. Acta Biomater. 2017.Abstract
In-situ tissue regeneration aims to utilize the body's endogenous healing capacity through the recruitment of host stem or progenitor cells to an injury site. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 α (SDF-1 α) is widely discussed as a potent chemoattractant. Here we use a cell-free biomaterial-based approach to (i) deliver SDF-1 α for the recruitment of endogenous bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSC) into a critical-sized segmental femoral defect in rats and to (ii) induce hydrogel stiffness-mediated osteogenic differentiation in-vivo. Ionically crosslinked alginate hydrogels with a stiffness optimized for osteogenic differentiation were used. Fast-degrading porogens were incorporated to impart a macroporous architecture that facilitates host cell invasion. Endogenous cell recruitment to the defect site was successfully triggered through the controlled release of SDF-1 α. A trend for increased bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) were observed for gels loaded with SDF-1 α, compared to empty gels at two weeks. A trend was also observed, albeit not statistically significant, towards matrix stiffness influencing BV/TV and BMD at two weeks. However, over a six week time-frame, these effects were insufficient for bone bridging of a segmental femoral defect. While mechanical cues combined with ex-vivo cell encapsulation have been shown to have an effect in the regeneration of less demanding in-vivo models, such as cranial defects of nude rats, they are not sufficient for a SDF-1 α mediated in-situ regeneration approach in segmental femoral defects of immunocompetent rats, suggesting that additional osteogenic cues may also be required. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Stromal cell-derived factor-1 α (SDF-1 α) is a chemoattractant used to recruit host cells for tissue regeneration. The concept that matrix stiffness can direct mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation into various lineages was described a decade ago using in-vitro experiments. Recently, alginate hydrogels with an optimized stiffness and ex-vivo encapsulated MSCs were shown to have an effect in the regeneration of skull defects of nude rats. Here, we apply this material system, loaded with SDF-1 α and without encapsulated MSCs, to (i) recruit endogenous cells and (ii) induce stiffness-mediated osteogenic differentiation in-vivo, using as model system a load-bearing femoral defect in immunocompetent rats. While a cell-free approach is of great interest from a translational perspective, the current limitations are described.
Cezar CA, Arany P, Vermillion SA, Seo BR, Vandenburgh HH, Mooney DJ. Timed Delivery of Therapy Enhances Functional Muscle Regeneration. Adv Healthc Mater. 2017.Abstract
Cell transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of traumatic muscle injury in humans. Previous investigations have typically focused on the identification of potent cell and growth factor treatments and optimization of spatial control over delivery. However, the optimal time point for cell transplantation remains unclear. Here, this study reports how myoblast and morphogen delivery timed to coincide with specific phases of the inflammatory response affects donor cell engraftment and the functional repair of severely injured muscle. Delivery of a biomaterial-based therapy timed with the peak of injury-induced inflammation leads to potent early and long-term regenerative benefits. Diminished inflammation and fibrosis, enhanced angiogenesis, and increased cell engraftment are seen during the acute stage following optimally timed treatment. Over the long term, treatment during peak inflammation leads to enhanced functional regeneration, as indicated by reduced chronic inflammation and fibrosis along with increased tissue perfusion and muscle contractile force. Treatments initiated immediately after injury or after inflammation had largely resolved provided more limited benefits. These results demonstrate the importance of appropriately timing the delivery of biologic therapy in the context of muscle regeneration. Biomaterial-based timed delivery can likely be applied to other tissues and is of potential wide utility in regenerative medicine.
Li J, Celiz AD, Yang J, Yang Q, Wamala I, Whyte W, Seo BR, Vasilyev NV, Vlassak JJ, Suo Z, et al. Tough adhesives for diverse wet surfaces. Science. 2017;357 (6349) :378-381.Abstract
Adhesion to wet and dynamic surfaces, including biological tissues, is important in many fields but has proven to be extremely challenging. Existing adhesives are cytotoxic, adhere weakly to tissues, or cannot be used in wet environments. We report a bioinspired design for adhesives consisting of two layers: an adhesive surface and a dissipative matrix. The former adheres to the substrate by electrostatic interactions, covalent bonds, and physical interpenetration. The latter amplifies energy dissipation through hysteresis. The two layers synergistically lead to higher adhesion energies on wet surfaces as compared with those of existing adhesives. Adhesion occurs within minutes, independent of blood exposure and compatible with in vivo dynamic movements. This family of adhesives may be useful in many areas of application, including tissue adhesives, wound dressings, and tissue repair.
Kwee BJ, Mooney DJ. Biomaterials for skeletal muscle tissue engineering. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2017;47 :16-22.Abstract
Although skeletal muscle can naturally regenerate in response to minor injuries, more severe damage and myopathies can cause irreversible loss of muscle mass and function. Cell therapies, while promising, have not yet demonstrated consistent benefit, likely due to poor survival of delivered cells. Biomaterials can improve muscle regeneration by presenting chemical and physical cues to muscle cells that mimic the natural cascade of regeneration. This brief review describes strategies for muscle repair utilizing biomaterials that can provide signals to either transplanted or host muscle cells. These strategies range from approaches that utilize biomaterials alone to those that combine biomaterials with exogenous growth factors, ex vivo cultured cells, and extensive culture time.
Alvarez MM, Aizenberg J, Analoui M, Andrews AM, Bisker G, Boyden ES, Kamm RD, Karp JM, Mooney DJ, Oklu R, et al. Emerging Trends in Micro- and Nanoscale Technologies in Medicine: From Basic Discoveries to Translation. ACS Nano. 2017.Abstract
We discuss the state of the art and innovative micro- and nanoscale technologies that are finding niches and opening up new opportunities in medicine, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We take the design of point-of-care applications and the capture of circulating tumor cells as illustrative examples of the integration of micro- and nanotechnologies into solutions of diagnostic challenges. We describe several novel nanotechnologies that enable imaging cellular structures and molecular events. In therapeutics, we describe the utilization of micro- and nanotechnologies in applications including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and pharmaceutical development/testing. In addition, we discuss relevant challenges that micro- and nanotechnologies face in achieving cost-effective and widespread clinical implementation as well as forecasted applications of micro- and nanotechnologies in medicine.
Thelin MA, Kissler S, Vigneault F, Watters AL, White D, Koshy ST, Vermillion SA, Mooney DJ, Serwold T, Ali OA. In Vivo Enrichment of Diabetogenic T Cells. Diabetes. 2017.Abstract
Dysfunctional T cells can mediate autoimmunity, but the inaccessibility of autoimmune tissues and the rarity of autoimmune T cells in the blood hinder their study. Here, we describe a method to enrich and harvest autoimmune T cells in vivo using a biomaterial scaffold loaded with protein antigens. In model antigen systems, we find that antigen-specific T cells become enriched within scaffolds containing their cognate antigens. When scaffolds containing lysates from an insulin-producing β-cell line were implanted subcutaneously in autoimmune diabetes prone NOD mice, β-cell reactive T cells homed to these scaffolds and became enriched. These T cells induced diabetes after adoptive transfer, indicating their pathogenicity. Furthermore, T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing identified many expanded TCRs within the β-cell scaffolds that were also expanded within the pancreases of NOD mice. These data demonstrate the utility of biomaterial scaffolds loaded with disease-specific antigens to identify and study rare, therapeutically important T cells.
Ponnuswamy N, Bastings MMC, Nathwani B, Ryu JH, Chou LYT, Vinther M, Li WA, Anastassacos FM, Mooney DJ, Shih WM. Oligolysine-based coating protects DNA nanostructures from low-salt denaturation and nuclease degradation. Nat Commun. 2017;8 :15654.Abstract
DNA nanostructures have evoked great interest as potential therapeutics and diagnostics due to ease and robustness of programming their shapes, site-specific functionalizations and responsive behaviours. However, their utility in biological fluids can be compromised through denaturation induced by physiological salt concentrations and degradation mediated by nucleases. Here we demonstrate that DNA nanostructures coated by oligolysines to 0.5:1 N:P (ratio of nitrogen in lysine to phosphorus in DNA), are stable in low salt and up to tenfold more resistant to DNase I digestion than when uncoated. Higher N:P ratios can lead to aggregation, but this can be circumvented by coating instead with an oligolysine-PEG copolymer, enabling up to a 1,000-fold protection against digestion by serum nucleases. Oligolysine-PEG-stabilized DNA nanostructures survive uptake into endosomal compartments and, in a mouse model, exhibit a modest increase in pharmacokinetic bioavailability. Thus, oligolysine-PEG is a one-step, structure-independent approach that provides low-cost and effective protection of DNA nanostructures for in vivo applications.
Lienemann PS, Rossow T, Mao AS, Vallmajo-Martin Q, Ehrbar M, Mooney DJ. Single cell-laden protease-sensitive microniches for long-term culture in 3D. Lab Chip. 2017;17 (4) :727-737.Abstract
Single cell-laden three-dimensional (3D) microgels that can serve to mimic stem cell niches in vitro, and are therefore termed microniches, can be efficiently fabricated by droplet-based microfluidics. In this technique an aqueous polymer solution along with a highly diluted cell solution is injected into a microfluidic device to create monodisperse pre-microgel droplets that are then solidified by a polymer crosslinking reaction to obtain monodisperse single cell-laden microniches. However, problems limiting this approach studying the fate of single cells include Poisson encapsulation statistics that result in mostly empty microniches, and cells egressing from the microniches during subsequent cell culture. Here, we present a strategy to bypass Poisson encapsulation statistics in synthetic microniches by selective crosslinking of only cell-laden pre-microgel droplets. Furthermore, we show that we can position cells in the center of the microniches, and that even in protease-sensitive microniches this greatly reduces cell egress. Collectively, we present the development of a versatile protocol that allows for unprecedented efficiency in creation of synthetic protease-sensitive microniches for probing single stem cell fate in 3D.
Verbeke CS, Gordo S, Schubert DA, Lewin SA, Desai RM, Dobbins J, Wucherpfennig KW, Mooney DJ. Multicomponent Injectable Hydrogels for Antigen-Specific Tolerogenic Immune Modulation. Adv Healthc Mater. 2017.Abstract
Biomaterial scaffolds that enrich and modulate immune cells in situ can form the basis for potent immunotherapies to elicit immunity or reëstablish tolerance. Here, the authors explore the potential of an injectable, porous hydrogel to induce a regulatory T cell (Treg) response by delivering a peptide antigen to dendritic cells in a noninflammatory context. Two methods are described for delivering the BDC peptide from pore-forming alginate gels in the nonobese diabetic mouse model of type 1 diabetes: encapsulation in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microparticles, or direct conjugation to the alginate polymer. While particle-based delivery leads to antigen-specific T cells responses in vivo, PLG particles alter the phenotype of the cells infiltrating the gels. Following gel-based peptide delivery, transient expansion of endogenous antigen-specific T cells is observed in the draining lymph nodes. Antigen-specific T cells accumulate in the gels, and, strikingly, ≈60% of the antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells in the gels are Tregs. Antigen-specific T cells are also enriched in the pancreatic islets, and administration of peptide-loaded gels does not accelerate diabetes. This work demonstrates that a noninflammatory biomaterial system can generate antigen-specific Tregs in vivo, which may enable the development of new therapies for the treatment of transplant rejection or autoimmune diseases.
Roche ET, Horvath MA, Wamala I, Alazmani A, Song S-E, Whyte W, Machaidze Z, Payne CJ, Weaver JC, Fishbein G, et al. Soft robotic sleeve supports heart function. Sci Transl Med. 2017;9 (373).Abstract
There is much interest in form-fitting, low-modulus, implantable devices or soft robots that can mimic or assist in complex biological functions such as the contraction of heart muscle. We present a soft robotic sleeve that is implanted around the heart and actively compresses and twists to act as a cardiac ventricular assist device. The sleeve does not contact blood, obviating the need for anticoagulation therapy or blood thinners, and reduces complications with current ventricular assist devices, such as clotting and infection. Our approach used a biologically inspired design to orient individual contracting elements or actuators in a layered helical and circumferential fashion, mimicking the orientation of the outer two muscle layers of the mammalian heart. The resulting implantable soft robot mimicked the form and function of the native heart, with a stiffness value of the same order of magnitude as that of the heart tissue. We demonstrated feasibility of this soft sleeve device for supporting heart function in a porcine model of acute heart failure. The soft robotic sleeve can be customized to patient-specific needs and may have the potential to act as a bridge to transplant for patients with heart failure.
Mao AS, Shin J-W, Utech S, Wang H, Uzun O, Li W, Cooper M, Hu Y, Zhang L, Weitz DA, et al. Deterministic encapsulation of single cells in thin tunable microgels for niche modelling and therapeutic delivery. Nat Mater. 2017;16 (2) :236-243.Abstract
Existing techniques to encapsulate cells into microscale hydrogels generally yield high polymer-to-cell ratios and lack control over the hydrogel's mechanical properties. Here, we report a microfluidic-based method for encapsulating single cells in an approximately six-micrometre layer of alginate that increases the proportion of cell-containing microgels by a factor of ten, with encapsulation efficiencies over 90%. We show that in vitro cell viability was maintained over a three-day period, that the microgels are mechanically tractable, and that, for microscale cell assemblages of encapsulated marrow stromal cells cultured in microwells, osteogenic differentiation of encapsulated cells depends on gel stiffness and cell density. We also show that intravenous injection of singly encapsulated marrow stromal cells into mice delays clearance kinetics and sustains donor-derived soluble factors in vivo. The encapsulation of single cells in tunable hydrogels should find use in a variety of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.
Cheng L, Ji K, Shih T-Y, Haddad A, Giatsidis G, Mooney DJ, Orgill DP, Nabzdyk CS. Injectable Shape-Memorizing Three-Dimensional Hyaluronic Acid Cryogels for Skin Sculpting and Soft Tissue Reconstruction. Tissue Eng Part A. 2017.Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based fillers are used for various cosmetic procedures. However, due to filler migration and degradation, reinjections of the fillers are often required. Methacrylated HA (MA-HA) can be made into injectable shape-memorizing fillers (three-dimensional [3D] MA-HA) aimed to address these issues. In this study, shape retention, firmness, and biocompatibility of 3D MA-HA injected subcutaneously in mice were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen mice, each receiving two subcutaneous injections in their back, were divided into four groups receiving HA, MA-HA, 3D MA-HA, or saline, respectively. Digital imaging, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in vivo imaging system (IVIS), durometry, and histology were utilized to evaluate in vitro/vivo degradation and migration, material firmness, and the angiogenic (CD31) and immunogenic (CD45) response of the host tissue toward the injected materials. RESULTS: Digital imaging, SEM, and IVIS revealed that 3D MA-HA fillers maintained their predetermined shape for at least 30 days in vitro and in vivo. Little volume effects were noted in the saline and other control groups. There were no differences in skin firmness between the groups or over time. Histology showed intact skin architecture in all groups. Three-dimensional MA-HA maintained its macroporous structure with significant angiogenesis at the 3D MA-HA/skin interfaces and throughout the 3D MA-HA. There was no significant inflammatory response to any of the injected materials. CONCLUSION: 3D MA-HA showed remarkable tissue compatibility, compliance, and shape predictability, as well as retention, and thus might be suitable for various skin sculpting and soft tissue reconstruction purposes.
2016
Li J, Mooney DJ. Designing hydrogels for controlled drug delivery. Nature Reviews Materials [Internet]. 2016;1 :16071. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Hydrogel delivery systems can leverage therapeutically beneficial outcomes of drug delivery and have found clinical use. Hydrogels can provide spatial and temporal control over the release of various therapeutic agents, including small-molecule drugs, macromolecular drugs and cells. Owing to their tunable physical properties, controllable degradability and capability to protect labile drugs from degradation, hydrogels serve as a platform on which various physiochemical interactions with the encapsulated drugs occur to control drug release. In this Review, we cover multiscale mechanisms underlying the design of hydrogel drug delivery systems, focusing on physical and chemical properties of the hydrogel network and the hydrogel–drug interactions across the network, mesh and molecular (or atomistic) scales. We discuss how different mechanisms interact and can be integrated to exert fine control in time and space over drug presentation. We also collect experimental release data from the literature, review clinical translation to date of these systems and present quantitative comparisons between different systems to provide guidelines for the rational design of hydrogel delivery systems.
Shin J-W, Mooney DJ. Extracellular matrix stiffness causes systematic variations in proliferation and chemosensitivity in myeloid leukemias. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113 (43) :12126-12131.Abstract
Extracellular matrix stiffness influences biological functions of some tumors. However, it remains unclear how cancer subtypes with different oncogenic mutations respond to matrix stiffness. In addition, the relevance of matrix stiffness to in vivo tumor growth kinetics and drug efficacy remains elusive. Here, we designed 3D hydrogels with physical parameters relevant to hematopoietic tissues and adapted them to a quantitative high-throughput screening format to facilitate mechanistic investigations into the role of matrix stiffness on myeloid leukemias. Matrix stiffness regulates proliferation of some acute myeloid leukemia types, including MLL-AF9(+) MOLM-14 cells, in a biphasic manner by autocrine regulation, whereas it decreases that of chronic myeloid leukemia BCR-ABL(+) K-562 cells. Although Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin ligand and matrix softening confer resistance to a number of drugs, cells become sensitive to drugs against protein kinase B (PKB or AKT) and rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF) proteins regardless of matrix stiffness when MLL-AF9 and BCR-ABL are overexpressed in K-562 and MOLM-14 cells, respectively. By adapting the same hydrogels to a xenograft model of extramedullary leukemias, we confirm the pathological relevance of matrix stiffness in growth kinetics and drug sensitivity against standard chemotherapy in vivo. The results thus demonstrate the importance of incorporating 3D mechanical cues into screening for anticancer drugs.
Park J, Ku SK, Seo D, Hur K, Jeon H, Shvartsman D, Seok H-K, Mooney DJ, Lee K. Label-free bacterial detection using polydiacetylene liposomes. Chem Commun (Camb). 2016;52 (68) :10346-9.Abstract
Polydiacetylene (PDA) liposomes were prepared to selectively capture target released from bacteria. Specific interplay between released-surfactin and PDA resulted in a conformal change in the structure of PDA, highlighting the potential of indirect interactions between bacteria and PDA in the construction of new label-free bacterial sensors.
Zhang L, Cai L-H, Lienemann PS, Rossow T, Polenz I, Vallmajo-Martin Q, Ehrbar M, Na H, Mooney DJ, Weitz DA. One-Step Microfluidic Fabrication of Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules in Aqueous Conditions for Protein Release. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2016;55 (43) :13470-13474.Abstract
We report a microfluidic approach for one-step fabrication of polyelectrolyte microcapsules in aqueous conditions. Using two immiscible aqueous polymer solutions, we generate transient water-in-water-in-water double emulsion droplets and use them as templates to fabricate polyelectrolyte microcapsules. The capsule shell is formed by the complexation of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes at the immiscible interface. We find that attractive electrostatic interactions can significantly prolong the release of charged molecules. Moreover, we demonstrate the application of these microcapsules in encapsulation and release of proteins without impairing their biological activities. Our platform should benefit a wide range of applications that require encapsulation and sustained release of molecules in aqueous environments.
Gu L, Mooney DJ. Biomaterials and emerging anticancer therapeutics: engineering the microenvironment. Nat Rev Cancer. 2016;16 (1) :56-66.Abstract
The microenvironment is increasingly recognized to have key roles in cancer, and biomaterials provide a means to engineer microenvironments both in vitro and in vivo to study and manipulate cancer. In vitro cancer models using 3D matrices recapitulate key elements of the tumour microenvironment and have revealed new aspects of cancer biology. Cancer vaccines based on some of the same biomaterials have, in parallel, allowed for the engineering of durable prophylactic and therapeutic anticancer activity in preclinical studies, and some of these vaccines have moved to clinical trials. The impact of biomaterials engineering on cancer treatment is expected to further increase in importance in the years to come.

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