Lee KY, Peters MC, Anderson KW, Mooney DJ. Controlled growth factor release from synthetic extracellular matrices. Nature. 2000;408 (6815) :998-1000.Abstract
Polymeric matrices can be used to grow new tissues and organs, and the delivery of growth factors from these matrices is one method to regenerate tissues. A problem with engineering tissues that exist in a mechanically dynamic environment, such as bone, muscle and blood vessels, is that most drug delivery systems have been designed to operate under static conditions. We thought that polymeric matrices, which release growth factors in response to mechanical signals, might provide a new approach to guide tissue formation in mechanically stressed environments. Critical design features for this type of system include the ability to undergo repeated deformation, and a reversible binding of the protein growth factors to polymeric matrices to allow for responses to repeated stimuli. Here we report a model delivery system that can respond to mechanical signalling and upregulate the release of a growth factor to promote blood vessel formation. This approach may find a number of applications, including regeneration and engineering of new tissues and more general drug-delivery applications.
Shea LD, Wang D, Franceschi RT, Mooney DJ. Engineered bone development from a pre-osteoblast cell line on three-dimensional scaffolds. Tissue Eng. 2000;6 (6) :605-17.Abstract
Bone regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy progenitor cells, either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can ultimately regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Three-dimensional porous polymer scaffolds may enhance bone regeneration by creating and maintaining a space that facilitates progenitor cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. As an initial step to test this possibility, osteogenic cells were cultured on scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable polymers, and bone development on these scaffolds was evaluated. Porous polymer scaffolds were fabricated from biodegradable polymers of lactide and glycolide. MC3T3-E1 cells were statically seeded onto the polymer scaffolds and cultured in vitro in the presence of ascorbic acid and beta-glycerol phosphate. The cells proliferated during the first 4 weeks in culture and formed a space-filling tissue. Collagen messenger RNA levels remained high in these cells throughout the time in culture, which is consistent with an observed increase in collagen deposition on the polymer scaffold. Mineralization of the deposited collagen was initially observed at 4 weeks and subsequently increased. The onset of mineralization corresponded to increased mRNA levels for two osteoblast-specific genes: osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein. Culture of cell/polymer constructs for 12 weeks led to formation of a three-dimensional tissue with architecture similar to that of native bone. These studies demonstrate that osteoblasts within a three-dimensional engineered tissue follow the classic differentiation pathway described for two-dimensional culture. Polymer scaffolds such as these may ultimately be used clinically to enhance bone regeneration by delivering or recruiting progenitor cells to the wound site.
Abraham Cohn N, Kim BS, Erkamp RQ, Mooney DJ, Emelianov SY, Skovoroda AR, O'Donnell M. High-resolution elasticity imaging for tissue engineering. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2000;47 (4) :956-66.Abstract
An elasticity microscope provides high resolution images of tissue elasticity. With this instrument, it may be possible to monitor cell growth and tissue development in tissue engineering. To test this hypothesis, elasticity micrographs were obtained in two model systems commonly used for tissue engineering. In the first, strain images of a tissue-engineered smooth muscle sample clearly identified a several hundred micron thick cell layer from its supporting matrix. Because a one-dimensional mechanical model was appropriate for this system, strain images alone were sufficient to image the elastic properties. In contrast, a second system was investigated in which a simple one-dimensional mechanical model was inadequate. Uncultured collagen microspheres embedded in an otherwise homogeneous gel were imaged with the elasticity microscope. Strain images alone did not clearly depict the elastic properties of the hard spherical cell carriers. However, reconstructed elasticity images could differentiate the hard inclusion from the background gel. These results strongly suggest that the elasticity microscope may be a valuable tool for tissue engineering and other applications requiring the elastic properties of soft tissue at high spatial resolution (75 microm or less).
Burg KJ, Holder WD, Culberson CR, Beiler RJ, Greene KG, Loebsack AB, Roland WD, Mooney DJ, Halberstadt CR. Parameters affecting cellular adhesion to polylactide films. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 1999;10 (2) :147-61.Abstract
Absorbable biomaterials have been recently incorporated into the field of tissue engineering. Little work has been performed, even with the clinically acceptable absorbables, concerning their tissue promoting capability or lack, thereof. Furthermore, the relative attractions of cells to these implants may be largely disguised by the presence of serum. This research involved the development of an adhesion assay to compare the adhesion behavior of two cell types to two different polylactides in a serum free environment. The results showed that the attachment behavior depends not only on the cell or the polymer but a combination of the two.
Cahill MT, Moriarty PM, Mooney DJ, Kennedy SM. Pilomatrix carcinoma of the eyelid. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;127 (4) :463-4.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report a case of a recurring mass with an unusual origin on the eyelid of a 34-year-old man. METHOD: Case report. RESULT: Histology demonstrated that the mass was a pilomatrix carcinoma. CONCLUSION: An atypical mass with unusual symptoms or signs needs definitive treatment and diagnostic confirmation with histology.
Baum BJ, Wang S, Cukierman E, Delporte C, Kagami H, Marmary Y, Fox PC, Mooney DJ, Yamada KM. Re-engineering the functions of a terminally differentiated epithelial cell in vivo. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;875 :294-300.Abstract
Because of their easy access, and important role in oral homeostasis, mammalian salivary glands provide a unique site for addressing key issues and problems in tissue engineering. This manuscript reviews studies by us in three major directions involving re-engineering functions of salivary epithelial cells. Using adenoviral-mediated gene transfer in vivo, we show approaches to i) repair damaged, hypofunctional glands and ii) redesign secretory functions to include endocrine as well as exocrine pathways. The third series of studies show our general approach to develop an artificial salivary gland for clinical situations in which all glandular tissue has been lost.
Rowley JA, Madlambayan G, Mooney DJ. Alginate hydrogels as synthetic extracellular matrix materials. Biomaterials. 1999;20 (1) :45-53.Abstract
Alginate hydrogels are used extensively in cell encapsulation, cell transplantation, and tissue engineering applications. Alginates possess many favorable properties required in biomaterials, but are unable to specifically interact with mammalian cells. We have therefore covalently modified alginate polysaccharides with RGD-containing cell adhesion ligands utilizing aqueous carbodiimide chemistry. The chemistry has been optimized and quantified with reaction efficiencies reaching 80% or greater. The concentration of peptide available for reaction was then varied to create hydrogels with a range of ligand densities. Mouse skeletal myoblasts were cultured on alginate hydrogel surfaces coupled with GRGDY peptides to illustrate achievement of cellular interaction with the otherwise non-adhesive hydrogel substrate. Myoblasts adhere to GRGDY-modified alginate surfaces, proliferate, fuse into multinucleated myofibrils, and express heavy-chain myosin which is a differentiation marker for skeletal muscle. Myoblast adhesion and spreading on these GRGDY-modified hydrogels was inhibited with soluble ligand added to the seeding medium, illustrating the specificity of adhesion to these materials. Alginate may prove to be an ideal material with which to confer specific cellular interactive properties, potentially allowing for the control of long-term gene expression of cells within these matrices.
Kim SS, Kaihara S, Benvenuto MS, Choi RS, Kim BS, Mooney DJ, Taylor GA, Vacanti JP. Regenerative signals for intestinal epithelial organoid units transplanted on biodegradable polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering of small intestine. Transplantation. 1999;67 (2) :227-33.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Our laboratory is investigating the tissue engineering of small intestine using intestinal epithelial organoid units seeded onto highly porous biodegradable polymer tubes. This study investigated methods of stimulation for optimizing neointestinal regeneration. METHODS: Intestinal epithelial organoid units harvested from neonatal Lewis rats were seeded onto porous biodegradable polymer tubes and implanted into the omentum of adult Lewis rats in the following groups: (1) the control group (group C), implantation alone (n=9); (2) the small bowel resection (SBr) group, after 75% SBr (n=9); (3) the portacaval shunt (PCS) group, after PCS (n=8); and (4) the partial hepatectomy (PH) group, after 75% PH (n=8). Neointestinal cyst size was recorded using ultrasonography. Constructs were harvested at 10 weeks and were examined using histology. Morphometric analysis of the neomucosa was obtained using a computer image analysis program (NIH Image, version 1.59). RESULTS: Cyst development was noted in all animals. Cyst lengths and diameters were significantly larger in the SBr group at 7 and 10 weeks compared with the other three groups (P<0.05; analysis of variance [ANOVA], Fisher's protected least significant difference). Histology revealed a well-vascularized tissue with a neomucosa lining the lumen with invaginations resembling crypt-villus structures. Morphometric analysis demonstrated a significantly greater villus number, height, area, and mucosal surface in the SBr group compared with the other three groups and a significantly greater crypt number and area in the PCS group compared with group C (P<0.05; ANOVA, Fisher's protected least significant difference). CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal epithelial organoid units transplanted on porous biodegradable polymer tubes can successfully vascularize, survive, and regenerate into complex tissue resembling small intestine. SBr and, to a lesser extent, PCS provide significant regenerative stimuli for the morphogenesis and differentiation of tissue-engineered small intestine.
Kim SS, Kaihara S, Benvenuto MS, Kim BS, Mooney DJ, Vacanti JP. Small intestinal submucosa as a small-caliber venous graft: a novel model for hepatocyte transplantation on synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffolds with direct access to the portal venous system. J Pediatr Surg. 1999;34 (1) :124-8.Abstract
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Hepatotrophic factors in the portal blood are critically important for the survival of heterotopically transplanted hepatocytes. Currently, no model exists for the implantation of hepatocytes on biodegradable polymer scaffolds with direct access to the portal blood. This study investigates the use of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a small-caliber venous conduit that may be used for the implantation of tissue-engineered liver. METHODS: SIS was prepared from segments of rat jejunum and implanted as a venous conduit between the portal vein and inferior vena cava in 26 heparinized Lewis rats. Venograms were performed periodically, and the grafts were harvested at various time-points and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histology. Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) staining was performed to assess endothelialization. RESULTS: Five rats died of technical complications. Seventeen of 21 rats (81%) maintained patent grafts at the time of death up to 8 weeks. Venograms demonstrated patent grafts at 3 and 8 weeks. SEM results showed a smooth luminal surface with endothelial-like cells by 3 weeks. Histology demonstrated a confluent luminal endothelial monolayer, absence of thrombus, and neovascularization in the SIS graft. VWF staining results were positive, confirming the growth of endothelial cells on the luminal surface. In preliminary studies, implantation of hepatocytes seeded on biodegradable polymer tubes into the SIS graft demonstrated clusters of viable cells after 2 days. CONCLUSIONS: Rat SIS can be prepared readily, maintains high patency as a small-caliber venous graft, and may be a useful model for the transplantation of tissue-engineered liver with access to the portal circulation.
Nör JE, Christensen J, Mooney DJ, Polverini PJ. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis is associated with enhanced endothelial cell survival and induction of Bcl-2 expression. Am J Pathol. 1999;154 (2) :375-84.Abstract
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell mitogen and permeability factor that is potently angiogenic in vivo. We report here studies that suggest that VEGF potentiates angiogenesis in vivo and prolongs the survival of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) in vitro by inducing expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Growth-factor-enriched and serum-deficient cultures of HDMECs grown on collagen type I gels with VEGF exhibited a 4-fold and a 1.6-fold reduction, respectively, in the proportion of apoptotic cells. Enhanced HDMEC survival was associated with a dose-dependent increase in Bcl-2 expression and a decrease in the expression of the processed forms of the cysteine protease caspase-3. Cultures of HDMECs transduced with and overexpressing Bcl-2 and deprived of growth factors showed enhanced protection from apoptosis and exhibited a twofold increase in cell number and a fourfold increase in the number of capillary-like sprouts. HDMECs overexpressing Bcl-2 when incorporated into polylactic acid sponges and implanted into SCID mice exhibited a sustained fivefold increase in the number of microvessels and a fourfold decrease in the number of apoptotic cells when examined 7 and 14 days later. These results suggest that the angiogenic activity attributed to VEGF may be due in part to its ability to enhance endothelial cell survival by inducing expression of Bcl-2.
Kim BS, Nikolovski J, Bonadio J, Mooney DJ. Cyclic mechanical strain regulates the development of engineered smooth muscle tissue. Nat Biotechnol. 1999;17 (10) :979-83.Abstract
We show that the appropriate combinations of mechanical stimuli and polymeric scaffolds can enhance the mechanical properties of engineered tissues. The mechanical properties of tissues engineered from cells and polymer scaffolds are significantly lower than the native tissues they replace. We hypothesized that application of mechanical stimuli to engineered tissues would alter their mechanical properties. Smooth muscle tissue was engineered on two different polymeric scaffolds and subjected to cyclic mechanical strain. Short-term application of strain increased proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and expression of collagen and elastin, but only when SMCs were adherent to specific scaffolds. Long-term application of cyclic strain upregulated elastin and collagen gene expression and led to increased organization in tissues. This resulted in more than an order of magnitude increase in the mechanical properties of the tissues.
Shea LD, Smiley E, Bonadio J, Mooney DJ. DNA delivery from polymer matrices for tissue engineering. Nat Biotechnol. 1999;17 (6) :551-4.Abstract
We have proposed engineering tissues by the incorporation and sustained release of plasmids encoding tissue-inductive proteins from polymer matrices. Matrices of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) were loaded with plasmid, which was subsequently released over a period ranging from days to a month in vitro. Sustained delivery of plasmid DNA from matrices led to the transfection of large numbers of cells. Furthermore, in vivo delivery of a plasmid encoding platelet-derived growth factor enhanced matrix deposition and blood vessel formation in the developing tissue. This contrasts with direct injection of the plasmid, which did not significantly affect tissue formation. This method of DNA delivery may find utility in tissue engineering and gene therapy applications.
Kim SS, Kaihara S, Benvenuto MS, Choi RS, Kim BS, Mooney DJ, Vacanti JP. Effects of anastomosis of tissue-engineered neointestine to native small bowel. J Surg Res. 1999;87 (1) :6-13.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Our laboratory is investigating the tissue engineering of small intestine using intestinal epithelial organoid units seeded onto highly porous biodegradable polymer matrices. This study investigated the effects of anastomosis of tissue-engineered intestine to native small bowel alone or combined with small bowel resection on neointestinal regeneration. METHODS: Intestinal epithelial organoid units harvested from neonatal Lewis rats were seeded onto biodegradable polymer tubes and implanted into the omentum of adult Lewis rats as follows: (1) implantation alone (n = 9); (2) implantation followed by anastomosis to native small bowel at 3 weeks (n = 11); and (3) implantation after small bowel resection and anastomosis to native small bowel at 3 weeks (n = 8). All constructs were harvested at 10 weeks and examined by histology. Morphometric analysis of the neomucosa was obtained using a computer image analysis program. RESULTS: Cyst development was noted in all animals. All anastomoses were patent at 10 weeks. Histology revealed the development of a vascularized tissue with a neomucosa lining the lumen of the cyst with invaginations resembling crypt-villus structures. Morphometric analysis demonstrated significantly greater villus number, villus height, crypt number, crypt area, and mucosal surface length in groups 2 and 3 compared with group 1, and significantly greater villus number, villus height, crypt area, and mucosal surface length in group 3 compared with group 2 (P < 0.05, ANOVA, Tukey test). CONCLUSION: Intestinal epithelial organoid units transplanted on biodegradable polymer tubes can regenerate into complex tissue resembling small intestine. Anastomosis to native small bowel combined with small bowel resection and anastomosis alone contribute significant regenerative stimuli for the morphogenesis and differentiation of tissue-engineered neointestine.
Kaihara S, Kim S, Benvenuto M, Kim BS, Mooney DJ, Tanaka K, Vacanti JP. End-to-end anastomosis between tissue-engineered intestine and native small bowel. Tissue Eng. 1999;5 (4) :339-46.Abstract
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of end-to-end anastomosis between tissue-engineered intestine and native small bowel and to investigate the effect of this anastomosis on their growth. Microporous biodegradable polymer tubes were created from a fiber mesh of polyglycolic acid sprayed with 5% polylactic acid. Intestinal epithelial organoid units were harvested from neonatal Lewis rats and seeded onto polymers. These constructs were implanted into the omentum of adult Lewis rats. Three weeks after the implantation, the constructs (n = 7) were anastomosed to the native jejunum in an end-to-end fashion. Ten weeks after implantation, the tissue-engineered intestine was harvested. Four of 7 rats survived for 10 weeks and the overall patency rate of the anastomosis was 78% (11 of 14 anastomosis). The maximal length of the tissue-engineered intestine at week 3 and 10 was 1.80 +/- 0.32 and 1.93 +/- 0.39 cm (mean +/- SD). Histologically, the tissue-engineered intestine was lined with a well-developed neomucosal layer that was continuous with the native intestine. We conclude that anastomosis between tissue-engineered intestine and native small bowel had a moderately high patency rate and had a positive effect on maintenance of the size of the neointestine and development of the neomucosa.
Kim BS, Nikolovski J, Bonadio J, Smiley E, Mooney DJ. Engineered smooth muscle tissues: regulating cell phenotype with the scaffold. Exp Cell Res. 1999;251 (2) :318-28.Abstract
Culturing cells on three-dimensional, biodegradable scaffolds may create tissues suitable either for reconstructive surgery applications or as novel in vitro model systems. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that the phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in three-dimensional, engineered tissues is regulated by the chemistry of the scaffold material. Specifically, we have directly compared cell growth and patterns of extracellular matrix (ECM) (e.g. , elastin and collagen) gene expression on two types of synthetic polymer scaffolds and type I collagen scaffolds. The growth rates of SMCs on the synthetic polymer scaffolds were significantly higher than on type I collagen sponges. The rate of elastin production by SMCs on polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds was 3.5 +/- 1.1-fold higher than that on type I collagen sponges on Day 11 of culture. In contrast, the collagen production rate on type I collagen sponges was 3.3 +/- 1.1-fold higher than that on PGA scaffolds. This scaffold-dependent switching between elastin and collagen gene expression was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. The finding that the scaffold chemistry regulates the phenotype of SMCs independent of the scaffold physical form was confirmed by culturing SMCs on two-dimensional films of the scaffold materials. It is likely that cells adhere to these scaffolds via different ligands, as the major protein adsorbed from the serum onto synthetic polymers was vitronectin, whereas fibronectin and vitronectin were present at high density on type I collagen sponges. In summary, this study demonstrates that three-dimensional smooth muscle-like tissues can be created by culturing SMCs on three-dimensional scaffolds, and that the phenotype of the SMCs is strongly regulated by the scaffold chemistry. These engineered tissues provide novel, three-dimensional models to study cellular interaction with ECM in vitro.
Mooney DJ, Mikos AG. Growing new organs. Sci Am. 1999;280 (4) :60-5.
Kim SS, Kaihara S, Benvenuto M, Choi RS, Kim BS, Mooney DJ, Taylor GA, Vacanti JP. Regenerative signals for tissue-engineered small intestine. Transplant Proc. 1999;31 (1-2) :657-60.
Murphy WL, Mooney DJ. Controlled delivery of inductive proteins, plasmid DNA and cells from tissue engineering matrices. J Periodontal Res. 1999;34 (7) :413-9.Abstract
It has been estimated that half the annual health care budget in the United States is spent on patients suffering from tissue loss and late stage organ failure. Critical limitations inherent in traditional therapies call for novel tissue and organ replacement strategies. This paper discusses development of biomaterials for conductive, inductive and cell-based tissue replacement strategies. Biodegradable polymer scaffolds can be used as space-filling matrices for tissue development and barriers to migration of epithelial cells in tissue conductive approaches. Inductive approaches involve sustained delivery of bioactive factors, such as protein growth factors and DNA, to alter cell function in localized regions. Factors can be released from highly porous polymer scaffolds to allow factor delivery and tissue development to occur in concert. Cell-based approaches involve seeding of cells onto polymeric scaffolds in vitro and subsequent transplantation of the scaffold. New scaffold materials are being developed that address specific tissue engineering design requirements, and in some cases attempt to mimic natural extracellular matrices. These strategies together offer the possibility of predictably forming specific tissue structures, and may provide solutions to problems such as periodontal ligament detachment, alveolar bone resorption and furcation defects.
Holder WD, Gruber HE, Moore AL, Culberson CR, Anderson W, Burg KJ, Mooney DJ. Cellular ingrowth and thickness changes in poly-L-lactide and polyglycolide matrices implanted subcutaneously in the rat. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998;41 (3) :412-21.Abstract
Highly porous matrices of poly-L-lactide (PL) and polyglycolide (PG), 24, 50, or 95 mg/cc in the form of 10 x 10 x 3 mm wafers, were implanted subcutaneously (two per rat) in the flanks of 8-12-week-old female Lewis rats (n = 120). Matrices were harvested, two rats per week, for 15 weeks and examined histologically. At weeks 1 and 2, a thin fibrous capsule was present and matrices showed capillary beds and host-cell infiltration along the implant margins. By week 4, the PL specimens had some arterioles while the PG specimens still had only capillary beds. At week 7, PL had well developed arterioles, venules, and capillaries while PG began to show modest vascular beds of capillaries only. In terms of cellular ingrowth, PL remained unchanged from 7 to 15 weeks. Giant cell formation was observed wherever polymer was present. There was a loss of thickness and cell mass for both matrices over time (PG > PL) despite initial host-cell ingrowth. As both polymers degraded and were absorbed, the ingrown cells mass regressed. There was little remaining PG at 15 weeks, leaving no trace of cells that previously had ingrown and no evidence of scar tissue.
Eiselt P, Kim BS, Chacko B, Isenberg B, Peters MC, Greene KG, Roland WD, Loebsack AB, Burg KJ, Culberson C, et al. Development of technologies aiding large-tissue engineering. Biotechnol Prog. 1998;14 (1) :134-40.Abstract
There are many clinical situations in which a large tissue mass is required to replace tissue lost to surgical resection (e.g., mastectomy). It is possible that autologous cell transplantation on biodegradable polymer matrices may provide a new therapy to engineer large tissue which can be used to treat these patients. A number of challenges must be met to engineer a large soft tissue mass. These include the design of (1) a structural framework to maintain a space for tissue development, (2) a space-filling matrix which provides for localization of transplanted cells, and (3) a strategy to enhance vascularization of the forming tissue. In this paper we provide an overview of several technologies which are under development to address these issues. Specifically, support matrices to maintain a space for tissue development have been fabricated from polymers of lactide and glycolide. The ability of these structures to resist compressive forces was regulated by the ratio of lactide to glycolide in the polymer. Smooth muscle cell seeding onto polyglycolide fiber-based matrices has been optimized to allow formation of new tissues in vitro and in vivo. Finally, polymer microsphere drug delivery technology is being developed to release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic molecule, at the site of tissue formation. This strategy, which combines several different technologies, may ultimately allow for the engineering of large soft tissues.