Ischemic diseases are a leading cause of mortality and can result in autoamputation of lower limbs. We explored the hypothesis that implantation of an antigen-releasing scaffold, in animals previously vaccinated with the same antigen, can concentrate T2 T cells and enhance vascularization of ischemic tissue. This approach may be clinically relevant, as all persons receiving childhood vaccines recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have vaccines that contain aluminum, a T2 adjuvant. To test the hypothesis, mice with hindlimb ischemia, previously vaccinated with ovalbumin (OVA) and aluminum, received OVA-releasing scaffolds. Vaccinated mice receiving OVA-releasing scaffolds locally concentrated antigen-specific T2 T cells in the surrounding ischemic tissue. This resulted in local angiogenesis, increased perfusion in ischemic limbs, and reduced necrosis and enhanced regenerating myofibers in the muscle. These findings support the premise that antigen depots may provide a treatment for ischemic diseases in patients previously vaccinated with aluminum-containing adjuvants.
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