Ischemic diseases, such as peripheral artery disease, affect millions of people worldwide. While CD4 T-cells regulate angiogenesis and myogenesis, it is not understood how the phenotype of these adaptive immune cells regulate these regenerative processes. The secreted factors from different types of CD4 T-cells (Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg) were utilized in a series of in vitro assays and delivered from an injectable alginate biomaterial into a murine model of ischemia to study their effects on vascular and skeletal muscle regeneration. Conditioned medium from Th2 and Th17 T-cells enhanced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, in part by directly stimulating endothelial sprouting. Th1 conditioned medium induced vascular regression in vitro and provided no benefit to angiogenesis in vivo. Th1, Th2, and Th17 conditioned medium, to varying extents, enhanced muscle precursor cell proliferation and inhibited their differentiation in vitro, and prolonged early stages of muscle regeneration in vivo. Treg conditioned medium had a moderate or no effect on these processes in vitro and no discernible effect in vivo. These findings suggest that Th2 and Th17 T-cells may enhance angiogenesis and myogenesis in ischemic injuries, which may be useful in the design of immunomodulatory biomaterials to treat these diseases.
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