OBJECTIVES: Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is promising for dental and craniofacial applications due to its ability to be injected or filled into complex-shaped bone defects and molded for esthetics, and its resorbability and replacement by new bone. The objective of this study was to investigate bone regeneration via novel macroporous CPC containing absorbable fibers, hydrogel microbeads and growth factors in critical-sized cranial defects in rats.
METHODS: Mannitol porogen and alginate hydrogel microbeads were incorporated into CPC. Absorbable fibers were used to provide mechanical reinforcement to CPC scaffolds. Six CPC groups were tested in rats: (1) control CPC without macropores and microbeads; (2) macroporous CPC+large fiber; (3) macroporous CPC+large fiber+nanofiber; (4) same as (3), but with rhBMP2 in CPC matrix; (5) same as (3), but with rhBMP2 in CPC matrix+rhTGF-β1 in microbeads; (6) same as (3), but with rhBMP2 in CPC matrix+VEGF in microbeads. Rats were sacrificed at 4 and 24 weeks for histological and micro-CT analyses.
RESULTS: The macroporous CPC scaffolds containing porogen, absorbable fibers and hydrogel microbeads had mechanical properties similar to cancellous bone. At 4 weeks, the new bone area fraction (mean±sd; n=5) in CPC control group was the lowest at (14.8±3.3)%, and that of group 6 (rhBMP2+VEGF) was (31.0±13.8)% (p<0.05). At 24 weeks, group 4 (rhBMP2) had the most new bone of (38.8±15.6)%, higher than (12.7±5.3)% of CPC control (p<0.05). Micro-CT revealed nearly complete bridging of the critical-sized defects with new bone for several macroporous CPC groups, compared to much less new bone formation for CPC control.
SIGNIFICANCE: Macroporous CPC scaffolds containing porogen, fibers and microbeads with growth factors were investigated in rat cranial defects for the first time. Macroporous CPCs had new bone up to 2-fold that of traditional CPC control at 4 weeks, and 3-fold that of traditional CPC at 24 weeks, and hence may be useful for dental, craniofacial and orthopedic applications.
Last updated on 09/29/2017
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